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Plants of Rome


The following plants are among those known to the ancient Romans (My goal is for these pages to contain - or at least include links to - all the information needed to create an authentic ancient Roman garden or farm - real or imaginary - in any part of the known world *G*. More links will be added as I organize my notes:-):

  1. Acacia, Egyptian (Acacia*) [Acacia arabica]

  2. Acanthus

  3. Adonis

  4. Alexanders [Smyrnium holusatrum L.] or [Smyrnium olusatrum L.]

  5. Alfalfa (lucerne) [Medicago sativa]

  6. Almond (Amygdala*) [Prunus dulcis, P.amygdalus ]

  7. Aloe* [Aloe vera]

  8. Althaea* [Althaea officinalis]

  9. Amaranth (Immortales)(Amarantus*) [Amaranthus hypochondriacus (LINN.)] [Celosia cristata, cockscomb; Amaranthus caudatus, amaranth]*

  10. Anemone

  11. Anise (Anesum*)[Pimpinella anisum L.]

  12. Anthyllis (barba-Jovis)

  13. Apiastrum

  14. Apple

  15. Arar (Thyine-wood) [Tetraclinis articulata]

  16. Apricot

  17. Ash (Bumelia)* [Fraxinus excelsior]*

  18. Aspalathus (Camel's thorn) [Alhaji camelorum Fisch.]

  19. Asparagus [Asparagus officinalis L]

  20. Azalea, common (Aegolethron*) [Rhodendron ponticum]

  21. Azaroles

  22. Balm (Apiastrum*) [Melissa officinalis]

  23. Balsam (cult.) [Commiphora opobalsamum Engl.]

  24. Bannana, or plantain-tree (Pala)* [Musa paradisiaca]*

  25. Barley

  26. Basil [Ocimum basilicum L.]

  27. Beans [Vicia faba L.]

  28. Beet (Beta)* [Beta vulgaris L]

  29. Bergamot-mint [Mentha aquatica L.]

  30. Betony (Cestros) [Betonica officinalis]

  31. Birch (Betulla)* [Betula alba]*

  32. Blackberry

  33. Black Cumin (gith, fitches) [Nigella sativa L.]

  34. Blite

  35. Box

  36. Brussels sprout

  37. Cabbage

  38. Cabbage, Savoy (Apiaca brassica*) [Brassica oleracea sabauda]

  39. Calamint [Calamintha incana Boiss.]

  40. Camphire (Henna-flower) [Lawsonia inermis]

  41. Caper (Capparis or cappari)* [Capparis spinosa]*

  42. Cardoon [Cynara cardunculus L.]

  43. ~*Carob*~ (Ceronia, Ceratia*) [Ceratonia siliqua

  44. Caraway (cult.) (Careum)* [Carum carui L.] [Carum carvi]*

  45. Carpesium (Pontic or Cretan nard) [Valeriana dioscoridis Sibth.]

  46. Carrot (Queen Anne's Lace) [Daucus carota L]

  47. Casia

  48. Castor-oil tree (Cici*) [Ricinus communis]

  49. Catmint (amer. Catnip) [Nepeta cataria L>]

  50. cedar

  51. celery (cult.) [Apium graveolensL.]

  52. Chamomile [Anthemis nobilis L.]

  53. Chamomile, wild (Anthemis*) [Matricaria chamomilla, Anthemis chia]

  54. Cerintha

  55. Cherry (Cerasus*) [Prunus avium, sweet cherry; P. cerasus, sour cherry; P. mahaleb, mahaleb; P. padus, bog cherry]

  56. Chervil (cult.) [Anthriscus cerefolium]

  57. Chestnut (Balanitis)* {Castanea vesca]*

  58. Chibol (Fr. ciboule) [Allium fistulosum L.]

  59. Chickpea (Cicer*)[Cicer arietinum]*

  60. Chicory (Chichorium*) [Cichorium intybus or divaricatum]

  61. Chives [Allium schoenoprasum L.]

  62. Chrysanthemum (parthenium)

  63. Cicely [Myrrhis odorata Scop.]

  64. Cistus (Rock-rose) [Cistus Ladaniferus L.]

  65. Citron (Citrus)* [Citrus medica]*

  66. Convolvulus

  67. Coriander [Coriandrum sativum L.]

  68. Cornel tree

  69. Cornflower, blue (Cyanus)* [Centaurea cyanus]*

  70. Cotton [Gossypium herbaceum and G. arboreum]

  71. crab-apple

  72. Cress (cult.) (Cardamum)* [Lepidium sativum]*

  73. Crocus

  74. Cucumber

  75. Cumin (Cuminum)* [Cuminum cyminum L.]

  76. Cumin, wild [Lagoecia cuminoides]*

  77. Cunila

  78. Currant, black (Cynosbatos)* [Ribes nigrum]*

  79. Cyclamen (Cyclaminus)* [Cyclamen sp.]*

  80. Cynoglosum

  81. Cypress (Cypressus)* [Cyperus sempervirens]*

  82. Cypress (Galingale) [Cyperus longus L.]

  83. Damson (plum) [Prunus insititia L.]

  84. Dill (Anetum*)[Anethum graveolens L.]

  85. Dittany (Dictamnum)* [Amaracus dictamnus]*

  86. Elcampane [Inula helenium L.]

  87. Endive [Cichorium endivia]

  88. Fennel (cult.) [Foeniculum vulgare Mill.]

  89. Fenugreek (cult.) (Aegoceras*) [Trigonella foenum-graecum L.]

  90. Fig

  91. Flax [Linum usitatissimum]

  92. Gallic nard/Valerian

  93. Garlic (cult.) (Alium*) [Allium sativum L.]

  94. Gentian

  95. Germander

  96. Ginger [Zingiber officinale]

  97. Gourd

  98. Gourd, large (Cucurbita)* [Cucurbita maxima]* -- sometimes mis-translated as pumpkin, which may work in the recipes, but is actually a New World plant.

  99. Groundpine/pine

  100. Hazelnut (Abellana*) [Corylus avellana]

  101. Heliotrope

  102. Hemlock (Cicuta)* [Conium maculatum]*

  103. Hemp (Cannabis)* [Cannabis sativa]*

  104. Henna (Cypros)* [Lawsonia inermis]*

  105. Hesperis (Dame's violet)

  106. Holly

  107. Honeysuckle ( Clymenus)* [Lonicera etrusca and caprifolium]*

  108. Horehound, black (Ballote)* [Ballota nigra]*

  109. Houseleek (Amerimnon*) [Sempervivum tectorum]

  110. Hyacinth

  111. Hyssop [Origanum hirtum L.]

  112. Iris (cult) [Iris florentina L.]

  113. Iris (wild) [Iris pseudacorus L.]

  114. Ivy

  115. Jujube tree

  116. Juniper (Cedrys)* [Juniperus communis L.]

  117. Kale (Caulodes)* [Brassica oleracea acephala]*

  118. Larkspur

  119. Laurel(bay) [Laurus nobilis L.]

  120. Lavender [Lavandula stoechas L.]

  121. Lavender cotton (Chamaecyparissos)* [Santolina chamaecyparissus]

  122. Leek [Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum]

  123. Leek, wild (Ampeloprason)* [Allium ampeloprasum]*

  124. Lemon (malum medicum - the fruit or apple of the Medes) [Citrus limon B.]

  125. Lentils [Lens culinaris Medic.; also Lens esculenta Moench.]

  126. Lentisk (Mastic) [Pistachia lentiscus L.]

  127. Lettuce [Lactuca sativa L.]

  128. Lichen, Fragrant [Usnaea barbata L.]

  129. Lily

  130. Linseed

  131. Lotus, Indian (Cyamos)* [Nelumbo nucifera]*

  132. Lovage [Ligusticum levisticum L.]

  133. Lychnis

  134. Maidenhair (Adiatum)

  135. Mallow

  136. Mandragora

  137. Maple, Montpelier (Acer*) [Acer monspessulanum]

  138. Marjoram [Origanum majorana L.]

  139. Marjoram, sweet (Amaracus)* [Majorana hortensis]*

  140. Mastic tree

  141. Marum (?cat-thyme) [Teucrium marum L.]

  142. Medlar

  143. Melilot (Lotus) [Trigonella graeca Boiss.]

  144. Melissophyllum (balm)

  145. Melon

  146. Mint (cult) [Mentha viridis L.]

  147. Moss

  148. Mulberry

  149. Mustard [Brassica nigra Koch]

  150. Myrtle

  151. Nard, Celtic [Valeriana celtica L.]

  152. Nard, Mountain [Valeriana tuberosa L.]

  153. Nard, Wild [Asarum europaeum L.] or [Valeriana phu L.]

  154. Nard, Pontic [Valeriana dioscoridis Sibth.]

  155. Narcissus

  156. Nettle tree (Celthis)* [Celtis australis L.]

  157. Oats (Bromos)* [Avena sativa]*

  158. Oleander

  159. Olive [Olea europaea]

  160. Onion (Cepa*) [Allium Cepa]

  161. Orache

  162. Orage

  163. Palm (date)

  164. Parsnip

  165. Parsley [Carum petroselinum B. and H.f.]

  166. Partridge Plant

  167. Papyrus [Cyperus papyrus]

  168. Peach

  169. Pear

  170. Pellitory 'of Spain' (Spanish chamomile) [Anacyclus pyrethrum L.]

  171. Pennyroyal (Blechon)* [Mentha pulegium L.]

  172. Pepperwort

  173. Periwinkle

  174. Pimpernel (Anagallis* and Corchorum*) [Anagallis arvensis, incl. subsp. phoenicea and caerulea

  175. Pistachio [Pistacia vera]

  176. Plane tree

  177. Plum [Prunus domestica]

  178. Pomegranate

  179. Poppy [Papaver somniferum L.]

  180. Purslain

  181. Quince (Chrysomelum*) [Cydonia vulgaris]

  182. Radish [Raphanus sativus]

  183. Rape [Brassica napus]

  184. Raspberry

  185. Rice [Oryza sativa]

  186. Rocket [Eruca sativa Mill.]

  187. Rose

  188. Rose, dog (Cynorrhodon, cynorrhoda)* [rosa canina]*

  189. Rose, white (Cynosbatos)* [Rosa sempervirens]*

  190. Rosemary (libanotis/conyza) [Rosmarinus officinalis L.]

  191. Rosemary frankincense [Lecokia cretica DC.]

  192. Rue [Ruta graveolens L.]

  193. Saffron (Crocus, Dialeucon)* [Crocus sativus L.]

  194. Safflower (Bastard Saffron) (Cnecos)* [Carthamus tinctorius L.]

  195. Sage [Salvia officinalis L.]

  196. Salvia [Salvia triloba L.]

  197. Samphire (Rock-fennel) [Crithmum maritimum L.]

  198. Savory (wild) [Satureia thymbra L.]

  199. Sensitive plant (Aeschynomene*) [Mimosa asperata]

  200. Service tree (Sorbus) [Sorbus domestica]

  201. Sesame [Sesamum indicum L. ]

  202. Seseli (cult.) [Tordylium officinale L.]

  203. Shallot [Allium ascalonium L.]

  204. Silphium [Ferula tingitana L.]

  205. Smilax

  206. Snapdragon (Antirrhinum*) [Antirrhinum orontium]

  207. Sorrel

  208. Southernwood [Artemisia abrotanum L.]

  209. Spalax

  210. Squill

  211. Star of Bethlehem (Bulbine, or bolbine)* [Ornithogalum umbellatum*

  212. Strawberry

  213. Strawberry tree (Arbutus)* [Arbutus unedo]

  214. Styrax [Styrax officinalis L.]

  215. Sumach [Rhus coriaria L.]

  216. Summer beet

  217. Sweet rush

  218. Terebinth [Pistacia terebinthus L.]

  219. Thapsia

  220. Thyme [Thymus vulgaris L.]

  221. Tree medick (Cytisus)* [Medicago arborea]*

  222. Tuber apple

  223. Turnip [Brassica campestris]

  224. Turnip, French (Bunias)* [Brassica napus]*

  225. Vetch

  226. Vine

  227. Violet

  228. Walnut (Basilicon)* [Juglans regia]*

  229. Wheat, emmer (Ador, aroreum*) [Triticum dicoccum]

  230. Wormwood [Artemisia absinthium L.]

* term indexed, or other information listed in the index of the Loeb edition of Pliny's Natural History.